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The Logic of History (Routledge, London, 2004) pp.ix, 211.

ISBN: hardback 0-415-22398-9; paperback: 0-415-22399-7

The Truth of History (Routledge, London, 1998) pp.viii, 327.

ISBN: hardback: 0-415-17110-5; paperback: 0-415-17111-3

Justifying Historical Descriptions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1984; reprinted in paperback 2009) pp.252.


“Historical Explanation, Theories of:  Philosophical Aspects”, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences, second edition, vol. 11 (2015) 10-16.

“The Truth of Basic Historical Descriptions”, Journal of the Philosophy of History, 9 (2015) 97-117.

“The Resurrection of Jesus:  Explanation or Interpretation?”, Southeastern Theological Review, 3.1 (2012) 41-53.

“The Lessons of history: Generalizations, Traditions, and Inspirations”, British Abolitionism and the Question of Moral Progress in History ed. Donald A. Yerxa, The University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina (2012) 120-135.

“Drawing lessons from the past”, Historically Speaking XII.2 (2011) 42-44.

“Colligation”, in A Companion to Philosophy of History and Historiography, ed. Aviezer Tucker, Blackwell, 2009, 152-161.

“Can religious beliefs be justified pragmatically?” Sophia 46 (2007) 21-34.

“Postmodernism and the truth of history”, Historically Speaking VI.3 (2005), 8-10.

Reprinted in Recent Themes in Historical Thinking, ed. Donald A. Yerxa, University of South Carolina, 2008, 57-62.

“What do historians argue about?”, History and Theory, 43 (2004), 18-38. Reprinted in Historiography. Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, ed. Robert M. Burns, Vol.IV “Culture”, Routledge, London, pp.468-491.

“Theories of historical explanation (philosophical aspects), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences(Pergamon, 2001).

“Understanding history”, in Essays in Honor of Burleigh Wilkins. From History to Justice,ed. A. Jokie (Peter Lange, ?, 2001), 95-114.

“Bias in historical description, interpretation and explanation”, History and Theory, 39 (2000), 39-66.

“The structure and objectivity of historical narratives”, Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, vol.VIII (Philosophy Documentation Center, 2000).

“Metaphor and truth in history”, Clio, 23 (1993), 23-49.

“Evil and the love of God”, Sophia, 31 (1992), 48-60.

“Can our understanding of old texts be objective?”, History and Theory, 30 (1991), 302-323.

“How objective interests explain actions”, Social Science Information, 30 (1991),


“The rationality of emotions and emotional behaviour”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 68 (1990), 44-58.

“The unifying themes of historical narratives”, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 19 (1989), 55-74.

“Theology of atonement”, Theology, 91 (1988) 392-400.

“The virtue of cognitive relativism”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 66 (1988), 101-4.

“The relations between symbols and what they symbolize”, Social Science Information, 27 (1988), 295-307.

“The truth of historical narratives”, History and Theory, Beiheft 26 (1987), 30-46.

“The intelligibility of cognitive relativism:, The Monist, 67 (1984), 327-40.

“Historical realism”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 40 (1980) 420-5.

“Colligation and classification in history”, History and Theory 17 (1978), 267-84.

“The nature of historical inferences” Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 121-2 (1977), 351-9

“The individuation of actions and acts”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 54.2 (1976), 133-9.

“Causal theories of action”, Philosophical Studies 27 (1975) 201-9.

“Historical instrumentalism”, History and Theory, 12.3 (1973), 290-306.

“Interpretation in history”, The Australian Journal of Politics and History, XVII (1971), 215-29.

“Narration and explanation in history”, Mind 78 no.310 (1969), 256-61.

“Croce’s philosophy of history”, Historical Studies, 13 (1967), 86-93.


Aviezer Tucker, Our Knowledge of the Past: A Philosophy of Historiography. Reviewed in Mind 114.455 (2005), 782-6.

Roy Harris, The Linguistics of History. Reviewed in History and Theory 44.3 (2005), 441-55.

Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past. Reviewed in The Historian, 65.4 (2003), l068-70.

Murray G. Murphy, Philosophical Foundations of Historical Knowledge. Reviewed in International Studies in Philosophy,XXX.2 (1998), 142-3.

Gordon Graham, The Shape of the Past. A Philosophical Approach to History. Reviewed in History and Theory, 37.3 (1998) 401-8.

Geoffrey Hawthorn, Plausible Worlds: Possibility and Understanding in History and the Social Sciences; and

G.R.Elton, Return to Essentials: some reflections on the present state of historical studies. Reviewed in Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 25.4 (1995) 523-48.

Peter Munz, Our Knowledge of the Growth of Knowledge: Popper … Wittgenstein. Reviewed in International Studies in Philosophy, XXII.1 (1990), 128-9.

Finn Collin, Theory and Understanding. A Critique of Interpretive Social Science. Reviewed in Australasian Journal of Philosophy (henceforth AJP, 65.3 (1987), 360-2.

Peter Achinstein, The Nature of Explanation. Reviewed in AJP, 63.4 (1985), 549-51.

F.R. Ankersmit, Narrative Logic. A Semantic Analysis of the Historian’s Language. Reviewed in History and Theory, 23.3 (1984), 394-403.

Agnes Heller, A Theory of History. Reviewed in AJP, 62.2 (1984), 202-3.

Van der Dussen, History as a Science: The Philosophy of R.G.Collingwood. Reviewed in AJP, 61.2 (1983) 221-2.

Paul Ricoeur, Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences, ed. John B. Thompson, and

John B. Thompson, Critical Hermeneutics: A study in the thought of Paul Ricoeur and Jürgen Habermas. Reviewed in AJP, 61.2 (1983), 211-3.

Bruce Aune, Reason and Action. Reviewed in AJP 58.1 (1980), 72.

Rex Martin, Historical Explanation: Re-enactment and Practical Inference, and

Burleigh Tayloor Wilkins, Has History any Meaning? A Critiique of Popper’s Philosophy of History. Reviewed in AJP, 57.2 (1979), 192-3.

Peter Munz, The Shapes of Time: A new look at philosophy of history. Reviewed in AJP, 57.1 (1979), 97-100.

Nathan Rotenstreich, Philosophy, History and Politics: Studies in contemporary philosophy of history. Reviewed in AJP, 55.3 (1977), 229-31.

William Todd, History as Applied Science. A Philosophical Study. Reviewed in History and Theory, 12.4 (1973), 435-52.


“Invitation to Historians”, Rethinking History, 12.2 (2008), 273-9. Reprinted in Authoring the Past.  Writing and Rethinking History. ed. Alun Munslow, London: Routledge, 2013, pp.165-170.